As we know, verb endings are of two types: either one-person or two-person.
It is a fact that both types of endings cannot be freely added to all verb bases. Verb bases divide in five groups according to their behavior with verb endings.
Only one-person endings can be directly added to these bases.
- sinik-1, anuri-1, aullaq-1, maqait-1, tuqu-1, …
- => sinit-tunga (
Both one-person and two-person endings can be directly added to these bases.
- taku-, niri-, sana-, utarqi-, puiguq-, …
- => taku-junga ~ taku-jara
One-person endings can be directly added to these bases. But the verb extender /gi-1>2 is used with two-person endings.
- irsi-1, uppiq-1, tusu-1, niriuk-1, sinnatuuma-1, …
- => irsi-junga ~ irsi-gi-jara
Verbs of group 3 are usually mental verbs.
Two-person endings can be directly added to these bases. But a verb extender (either+si-2>1, /i-2>1, +ji-2>1, /gi-2>1, /tsi-2>1 or +nni-2>1) is used with one-person endings.
- ii-2, aarqik-2, naa-2, annuraaq-2, inuuli-2, paa-2, …
- => ii-si-juq ~ ii-jara
- => tupaa-ri-junga or tupaar-si-junga ~ tupaar-tara
Neither one-person nor two-person endings can be directly added to these bases. The verb extender /gi-0>2 is used with two-person endings. Another verb extender (either/suk-0>1, /gusuk-0>1, +tsaq-0>1 or /gak-0>1) is used with one-person endings.
- alia-0, nalli-0, attaq-0, nakuq-0, pingik-0, …
- => alia-sut-tunga ~ alia-gi-jara
Verbs of Group 5 are usually emotional verbs. As such, they can also take the verb extender +naq-0>1.
Note that there are homophonic verb bases: piu-1 (I) ≠ piu-0 (V), …
Note that some verb bases belong to two groups: irqauma- (II) = irqauma-1 (III), …
Note this important rule:
Adding a one-person ending to a verb stem that requires a two-person ending gives a reflexive meaning.
- annuraaq-2 (IV) = to dress
- irni-minik annuraa-ri-juq = (s)he has dressed his/her own son
- annuraar-tara = I have dressed him/her
- => annuraar-tuq = (s)he has dressed (himself/herself)
- nalli-0 (V) = to love
- irni-minik nalli-gusut-tuq = (s)he loves his/her own son
- nalli-gi-jara = I love him/her
- => nalli-gi-juq = (s)he loves (himself/herself)