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Grammatical Groups of Verb Bases

Rule #25

As we know, verb endings are of two types: either one-person or two-person.

It is a fact that both types of endings cannot be freely added to all verb bases. Verb bases divide in five groups according to their behavior with verb endings.

Group 1

Only one-person endings can be directly added to these bases.

Examples

  • sinik-1, anuri-1, aullaq-1, maqait-1, tuqu-1, …
  • => sinit-tunga (~ sinit-tara)

Group 2

Both one-person and two-person endings can be directly added to these bases.

Examples 

  • taku-, niri-, sana-, utarqi-, puiguq-, …
  • => taku-junga ~ taku-jara

Group 3

One-person endings can be directly added to these bases. But the verb extender /gi-1>2 is used with two-person endings.

Examples

  • irsi-1, uppiq-1, tusu-1, niriuk-1, sinnatuuma-1, …
  • => irsi-junga ~ irsi-gi-jara

Verbs of group 3 are usually mental verbs.

Group 4

Two-person endings can be directly added to these bases. But a verb extender (either+si-2>1/i-2>1+ji-2>1/gi-2>1/tsi-2>1 or +nni-2>1) is used with one-person endings.

Examples

  • ii-2, aarqik-2, naa-2, annuraaq-2, inuuli-2, paa-2, …
  • => ii-si-juq ~ ii-jara
  • => tupaa-ri-junga or tupaar-si-junga ~ tupaar-tara

Group 5

Neither one-person nor two-person endings can be directly added to these bases. The verb extender /gi-0>2 is used with two-person endings. Another verb extender (either/suk-0>1/gusuk-0>1+tsaq-0>1 or /gak-0>1) is used with one-person endings.

Examples

  • alia-0, nalli-0, attaq-0, nakuq-0, pingik-0, …
  • => alia-sut-tunga ~ alia-gi-jara

Verbs of Group 5 are usually emotional verbs. As such, they can also take the verb extender +naq-0>1.

Note that there are homophonic verb bases: piu-1 (I) ≠ piu-0 (V), …

Note that some verb bases belong to two groups: irqauma- (II) = irqauma-1 (III), …

Note this important rule:

Adding a one-person ending to a verb stem that requires a two-person ending gives a reflexive meaning.

Examples

  • annuraaq-2 (IV) = to dress
  • irni-minik annuraa-ri-juq = (s)he has dressed his/her own son
  • annuraar-tara = I have dressed him/her
  • => annuraar-tuq = (s)he has dressed (himself/herself)
  • nalli-0 (V) = to love
  • irni-minik nalli-gusut-tuq = (s)he loves his/her own son
  • nalli-gi-jara = I love him/her
  • => nalli-gi-juq = (s)he loves (himself/herself)

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