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Reference document

Grammatical Groups of Verb Extenders

Rule #27

The majority of verb extenders are neutral with respect to the five groups presented above. They can be added to every kind of verb stems. The resulting stems have the same grammatical properties as the preceding stems.


/guma- is neutral, so aullaq-1 (I) plus /guma- gives aulla-ruma-1.
=> aulla-ruma-junga (aulla-ruma-jara)

/guma- is neutral, so taku- (II) plus /guma- gives taku-guma-.
=> taku-guma-junga taku-guma-jara

/nginnaq- is neutral, so nalu-1 (III) plus /nginnaq- gives nalu-nginnaq-1.
=> nalu-nginna-tuq
=> nalu-gi-2 => nalu-gi-nginna-tara

/guma- is neutral, so qait-2 (IV) plus /guma- gives qai-guma-2.
=> qai-guma-jara
=> qait-si-1 => qait-si-guma-junga

/llarik- is neutral, so alia-suk-1 plus /llarik- gives alia-su-llarik-1, and alia-gi-2 plus /llarik- gives alia-gi-llarik-2.
=> alia-su-llarit-tunga alia-gi-llarit-tara

/tuinnaq- is neutral, so aulla-ruma-1 plus /tuinnaq- gives aulla-ruma-tuinnaq-1.
=> aulla-ruma-tuinna-tunga (aulla-ruma-tuinna-tara)

However, many verb extenders are not neutral with respect to grammatical properties of verb stems: they can only be added to some kinds of verb stems, and the resulting stems have their own grammatical properties.

For example, the verb extender /qu- can only be added to a verb stem that can take a one-person ending, and the resulting stem can only take a two-person ending. To put it shortly: /qu-1>2.

=> tupaa-ri-qu-jara (tupaa-qu-jaratupaa-ri-qu-junga)

Note that /qu-1>2 takes the verb extender +ji-2>1 with one-person endings: /qu-ji-1>1.

=> aulla-qu-ji-junga (aulla-qu-ji-jara)

Other verb extenders follow the same pattern:

±tit-1>2 ~ ±tit-si-1>1
/kkaq-1>2 ~ /kka-i-1>1
+turi1>2 ~ +turi-tsi-1>1
+niraq1>2 ~ +nira-i-1>1

=> salummasa-i-tit-si-juq (salummasar-ti-si-juqsalummasa-i-tit-tara)
=> attu-i-langa-juri-jara (aittu-langa-juri-jaraaittu-i-langa-juri-junga)

But other patterns do exist:

±tau-2 >1
=> aarqi-tau-niar-tuq (aarqi-i-jau-niar-tuqaarqi-tau-niar-tara)
(note that ±tit-1>2 plus ±tau-2 >1 gives ±ti-tau-1 >1)

=> piu-tsa-nirsau-junga (piu-gi-nirsau-jungapiu-tsa-nirsau-jara)

=> piu-gi-nirsari-jara (piu-tsa-nirsau-jarapiu-gi-nirsau-junga)

=> uppi-nar-tuq uppi-ri-nar-tuq
=> siqumit-si-nar-tuq siqumin-na-tuq

=> kivi-ji-juq kivi-ji-jara
=> anna-i-juq anna-i-jara

/uti->2 ~ /ut-ji->1
=> angirra-uti-jara angirra-u-ji-juq
=> uqa-uti-jara uqa-ut-ji-juq
(note that /uti->2 plus ±tau-2 >1 gives /ut-jau->1)

+vigi->2 +viqaq->1
=> uqaala-vigi-jara uqaala-viqar-tuq
=> unikkaa-vigi-jara unikkaa-viqar-tuq
(note that +vigi->2 plus ±tau-2 >1 gives +viu->1)

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