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Reference document

Demonstrative Pronouns

Rule #34

Demonstrative pronouns serve to point out the persons or things spoken of. They can replace nouns or combine with nouns.

These are the demonstrative pronouns used nowadays (in the basic case singular):

Like nouns, demonstrative pronouns can occur in any of the eight cases. There are no special forms for dual.

Some postbases and tails can be added to demonstratives pronouns.

Adding a noun extender to a demonstrative pronoun produces a noun stem.
Adding a verb maker to a demonstrative pronoun produces a verb stem.
Adding a tail to a demonstrative pronoun does not change the category.


  • una-apik
  • una-kallak
  • taakkua-raapi-it
  • ikkua-ngu-ngngi-tut
  • taikkua-taqa-ngngi-pat
  • ukuninga-lu
  • inna-li-kiaq

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