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Reference document

Three – Step Reflective Framework

Use the three step reflective framework to debrief with your students after any CCD activity. This is a foundational resource to consult and use as a CCD teacher.

Step 1: WHAT?

Take notice & describe the experience

1.1. What did you do, know, feel, think, need?

Record a basic description of the experience, situation and/or concepts. (This is a narrative.)

1.2 What decisions did you make?

What decisions did you make?


  • Outline your actions associated with this.
  • Comment on your thoughts and emotions at the time. ❏ Indicate what helped or hindered.
  • Describe others actions and reactions.


​You can write retrospectively about what happened in the past tense, using a personal voice. Use a variety of methods to record your experience e.g. descriptive text, audio, pictures, bullet points, diagrams etc.

Step 2: SO WHAT?

Analyse the experience – implications of your decisions, actions, reactions

2.1 Why did you make the decisions and decide on these actions?

Analyse your decisions and actions. Think about why they were useful and how they helped your understanding and knowledge.

2.2 Why did you have certain reactions?

Make notes on the reasons for your intellectual, emotional and physical responses (reactions). This will help you better understand the way you learn and behave.


  • Think about why you acted in this manner and how it affected your practice.
  • Comment on what worked and what did not, and why.
  • Outline what you could have done better or differently.
  • What assumptions did you make and why did they influence you?
  • How do your actions and decisions fit with current research evidence and theory?


Be honest with yourself and use the information to get a clearer picture of the situation – your assumptions, prejudices and beliefs all play a part in this. Use as many different ways as you can to illustrate your points e.g. audio, video, diagrams, images etc.

Step 3: NOW WHAT?

Take Action – Reflect on what you learned and how you will use this

3.1 What did you learn and why?

Record what you have learned from the experience. Include a critique about your work and your role from a range of perspectives.

3.2 How will you use this learning?

Plan how you might apply what you have learned to your work and set some goals. This process will help reinforce what you have learned.


  • Indicate what you learned and how this might change your future work and why?
  • Mention socio-economic, political, historical and cultural considerations in the wider context of your work e.g. power relationships, social justice, traditions etc.
  • When setting goals for applying what you have learned to your work, include what you need to explore further or to get help with.
  • How does your plan and goals align with current understanding of yourself?


​If you are reflecting within the wider context of your work, you need to consider multiple perspectives – socio- economic, political, historical and cultural. This is critical reflection. Set yourself realistic goals, and indicate how and when you intend to achieve them.

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